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N1 anal cancers have metastases in perianorectal lymph nodes only. Presacral lymph nodes are primarily part of the internal iliac drainage pathway and are considered regional nodes. Int J Colorectal Dis ; 22 2: New York, NY: Anal fistulas can be classified based on their relationship with various components of the anal sphincter as superficial, intersphincteric, transphincteric, suprashincteric and extrasphicteric. Decades later, numerous nonrandomized and randomized trials continue to support use of radiation therapy and chemotherapy with fluorouracil and mitomycin C as the standard of care for all anal canal carcinomas, with abdominal-perineal resection used only for salvage in patients with locally recurrent disease 4 ,
The Rectum Macroscopic anatomy. The rectum begins at the height of S2-S3 and ends at the perineum. Microscopic anatomy. Histologically the rectum is similar to the rest of the large intestine with its usual Function. The rectum is the last stop before the feces is eliminated through the anal. Gross anatomy. The anal canal is a muscular tube, just like the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, but the difference being is that the muscular layer is circular forming the external and internal anal sphincters. The dentate (pectinate) line separates the anal canal into . Nov 12, · Gross Anatomy of the Anorectum. The anal canal extends from the anorectal sphincter to the anal verge, usually 3–6 cm in length (4, 6, 7, 9). The anal margin extends from the anal verge (or the introitus of the anal orifice) and extends in a 5–6-cm radius across the external skin-covered region.
At the level of the middle of the sacrum, the sigmoid colon loses its mesentery and gradually becomes the rectum, which, at the upper limit of the famous pornstar anal sex diaphragm, ends in the anal canal fig. The rectum, about 15 cm long, widens below as the ampulla, which is very distensible. Although variable in shape, anatomy of anal rectal juncture rectum follows the sacrococcygeal curve. At the anorectal junction, the gut curves anatomy of anal rectal juncture and its concavity is held by the puborectal sling, which can be palpated per anum. The rectum presents three or more lateral curvatures, which correspond to transverse rectal folds in the interior of the gut. The rectum has neither mesentery nor haustra, and it has an almost complete outer longitudinal muscular coat rather than teniae. In the upper third of the rectum, its front and sides are covered by peritoneum; in its middle third, the front only; its lower third is devoid of peritoneum.